Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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Reliability analysis of cantilever retaining walls.

The counterforts are provided behind the wall on the backfill side and are subjected to tensile forces. Design of Isolated Column Footing. The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts.

Countercort retaining submerged backfill: This is shown in pressure diagram in Fig.

Design of Structures 3(2+1)

It may also be defined as a wall provided to maintain ground at two different levels. Counterfort Retaining Walls When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Wall retaining backfill in slope. If the water table is such that the retained soil remain fully submerged, in such a case the saturated soil results in increasing the weight of the backfill, decreases the angle of repose of the soil which ultimately amounts to increase in pressure on the wall.

The brackets in this case are known as buttresses and by virtue of their location they are subjected to compressive forces. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill: The passive pressure developed by the key resists sliding and raises the factor of safety to required limit.


Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge. The wall consists of three components, i the stem, ii the toe, and iii the heel.

Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill: It is necessary to determine, the pressure exerted by the soil in designing a retaining wall. Showing of 32 references. Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering Kok Kwang Phoon To avoid failure of the retaining wall it is necessary that the following requirements are satisfied. Due to buoyancy the weight of submerged soil will be less and its repose will also be much less.

The inclined fill is also known as surcharge. The wall is so proportioned that the dead weight of the wall provides required stability against the thrust exerted by the backfill including surcharge if any.

Risk assessment in geotechnical engineering. It is also assumed that the retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil by sufficient amount so that the soil expands and evokes full shearing resistance and attains state of plastic equilibrium.

From This Countedfort Figures, tables, and topics from this paper. The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base. If the requirements of stability are not satisfied, its dimension should be revised. In this type wwll wall the base slab as well as the stem of the couunterfort span horizontally as continuous slabs between vertical brackets known as counterforts as shown in Fig.

Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge: Prior to start of structural design of a retaining wall it is necessary to adopt some tentative dimensions for different components of the wall. The maximum and minimum pressure are given by. Reliability—based design applied to retaining. Cantilever Retaining Walls References Publications referenced by this paper. The lateral pressure exerted by the submerged soil is considered to comprise of the following two components.

Counteffort of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental….


Four Types of Concrete Retaining Walls – The Concrete Network

The pressure wakl depends upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall. This type of wall proves to be economical for moderate heights say 6 to 7m.

Monte Carlo method Search for additional papers on this topic. Wall retaining submerged backfill. The intensity of lateral pressure at the base of the wall in such a case is given by.

This constant retaininh of safety may not be able to quantify coynterfort uncertainties associated with the random variables. Let the backfill be moist or dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i. You are currently using guest access Log in. Based on these dimensions the wall is checked for stability checked for overturning, sliding and maximum pressure at toe and in case the stability requirements are satisfied, structural design of different wall components is taken up.

It is a common practice to neglect the passive resistance of the soil in front of the toe of the wall in this check. Monte Carlo method First-order reliability method. Retaining walls are structures constructed for the purpose of retaining earth or other materials like coal, ore, water etc.

Design of RCC footing for Wall. The size of the wall is so kept that there is no tensile stress developed at any section of the wall under any condition of loading. In this case wall has only two components i. Sometimes the cantilever wall is constructed in the form of L.

Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Design of Two-way Slabs.