participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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What is the paradigm in which the textbook includes, implicitly or explicitly, the life definition if there is any? Nevertheless, when assuming such an approach, we should not underestimate biolgoia risks of losing from sight the need for an understanding not only of the molecular and cellular components of living systems, but also of the organizational principles by means of which the very systems daa we classify as living can emerge from those components.

Even though this idea has been criticized in several works about the nature of evolution, it remains in biology textbooks, even in higher education. Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems.

The complexity discerned by the authors in the problem of defining life reflects itself in a difficulty to address it. To put amabjs differently, it is the case of trying to find a list of sufficient and necessary properties for a system to be characterized as living, with no theoretical paradigmatic justification for the choice of properties.

It conflates the dx and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological process with the pathological phenomenon itself. But a thoughtful analysis can suggest that this solution is not so adequate.

Are the remarks about the definition of life reflected on the treatment of other issues in the textbooks, or are they isolated from the remainder of the book? The gene that codifies the prion protein is in the host itself, so that the prion lacks genetic material and, in fact, cannot do copies of itself in the same sense as typical living beings do.


It is a vast, modern and intrepid study in which we seek to understand the most intimate nature of each phenomenon that takes place inside a cell, in a fascinating investigation to explain each normal or abnormal process of the organism, justifying the nature of diseases, trying to correct or avoid them, and understanding life itself better.

Fundamentos Da Biologia Moderna Pdf 75 · GitBook (Legacy)

To put it differently, when a definition of life is embedded in a biological paradigm, it is possible to find underlying causes to what previously seemed to be merely a syndrome Bedau We did not find, however, any lovro that addressed the circular, self-referential organization of living systems by employing the conceptual resources of this theory.

The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts. We usually think of life as both form and matter — something with both informational-organizational and material-physical aspects —, but this understanding of life puts too much emphasis on the informational aspect cf.

The finding that two books address the problem of defining life in definite paradigmatic contexts is also very interesting. The same is not true of Paulinowho presents a coherent set of interrelated properties, based on a view of the scope of the Biological Sciences as well as of the way the living world is organized, from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization, suggesting the existence of some theoretical justification for their choice; nonetheless, the paradigm at stake is not explicitly stated.

All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules.

Given amabbis these molecules rule almost all activities of the cell, the nucleus plays the role of an indirect controller of the cellular metabolism. An understanding of the organizational patterns observed in living beings indicates how it is important in science and biology teaching to deal with the central, structuring Gagliardi concepts in biological thought, in contrast with the encyclopedic tendency of curricula El- Hani, in press[b].


The nature of life, in: One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks. From the 8 books analyzed, 5 presented a definition of life.

The idea that a discussion of life concepts might contribute to biology teaching incited us to pursue new research questions: Biology and Philosophy 7: Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the phenomenon of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank.

From a definition of death as the irreversible process of losing the highly organized activity that characterizes life, they discuss the definition of life itself. Click here to sign up.

It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings. Textbooks that presented lists of properties to differentiate living from non-living beings. Their Structure and Representation. Does the textbook discuss the problem of biolpgia life?

Life concept explicitly situated in a biological paradigm.

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Theory in Biosciences When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause. Or, to put it differently, a characterization of life from its counter- example, death.

When the living beings are thus presented in the textbooks, one can discern a tacit idea that the understanding of small entities, in the micro- levels, is fundamental to the understanding of larger entities, in the macro-levels. Organicismo, emergentismo e ensino de biologia, in: The prion protein simply catalyzes the very chemical reaction that results in itself.