The development of lymphoid organs can be viewed as a continuum. At one end are the ‘canonical’ secondary lymphoid organs, including lymph nodes and. Abstract: The development of lymphoid organs can be viewed as a continuum. At one end are the ‘canonical’ secondary lymphoid organs, including lymph. Lymphoid organ development: from ontogeny to neogenesis. (English). 1 reference. stated in · Europe PubMed Central · PubMed ID · · retrieved.

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Lymphoid organ development: from ontogeny to neogenesis.

Cytokines, autoantigens, or infectious organisms can give rise to chronic cellular accumulations called “ectopic” or “tertiary lymphoid organs,” through a process termed lymphoid organ neogenesis. Inhibition of LV function might be protective in MG. Molecular regulation of TLO LVs differs from lymphangiogenesis in ontogeny with a dependence on cytokines and hematopoietic cells.

Sign up for email alerts. Elucidation of LV regulatory mechanisms in TLOs will contribute to the development of therapies to either promote or inhibit their formation, but we must keep in mind that LVs may be beneficial or detrimental depending on their context.

As noted above, new techniques allowing isolation, purification, and single-cell in situ analysis will provide the tools for determination of gene expression.

Future research could take advantage of measurements of interstitial fluid pressure in the local vicinity of a TLO to evaluate whether edema occurs and the LVs are functional.

Studies in chickens 6162 and mice 63 — 65 support a role for mesodermal cells that express macrophage and lymphatic markers that become, integrate into, or support LVs through their production of VEGFs. On the other hand, the presence of blood vessels and their nearby LVs in TLOs suggests that lymphangiogenesis in inflammation occurs by sprouting from existing LVs.

The signals that organize LNs in ontogeny are tightly regulated, which results in the development of individual LNs on a precise temporal and anatomical schedule 7.

The regulation of lymphangiogenesis in TLOs remains a fertile area of research and is of key importance for the prophylaxis and treatment of autoimmunity, cancer, and lymphedema. Thus, the necessity for antigen transport to the TLO through an extensive LV system might not be necessary, and the LVs may not serve that function. A Giemsa staining of TLO reveals the presence of leukocytes. It might be of benefit to encourage the development of LVs in this context The participation of macrophages in lymphangiogenesis in acute inflammation has been well documented, although the precise nature of their role is a subject of considerable controversy.


The ability to isolate LVs on the basis of their antigen expression 77 or transgene induced fluorescence 79 will allow their molecular analysis and comparison to vessels from resting LNs, activated LNs, and TLOs. TLOs arise in several instances of chronic inflammation, including autoimmunity, chronic graft rejection, persistent infection summarized in ref.

The involvement of additional cell types is suggested by the existence of lymphangioblasts, which are distinct from blood endothelial cells, in developing tadpoles Analysis of lymphocyte, DC, and antigen-trafficking patterns in TLOs in real time in vivo is now possible with the use of mice that express fluorescent markers for HEVs 80 and LVs 79 Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Cancer: For example, proteins such as insulin in the pancreatic islet are in immediate proximity to or even a part of the TLO in T1DM.

Perhaps this occurs because memory cells leave the tumor TLO via LVs, and the activated cells traffic throughout the body and seek out metastatic disease.

LVs that are packed with lymphocytes orgwn prominent in some TLOs ref. Angiogenesis occurs in inflammation and platelets are present, which indicates that the important players in embryonic lymphangiogenesis may participate.

Kerjaschki and colleagues demonstrated the presence of host bone marrow—derived precursors in association with LVs in the TLOs of chronically rejecting kidneys They maintain fluid balance, preventing edema by providing drainage of interstitial fluid, provide lipid transport, and serve in an immune capacity by carrying antigen and cells throughout the immune system and regulating this transport through production of chemokines and sphingosinephosphate S1P 4.

Human and Translational Neogeneiss Program.

During low-dose, streptozotocin-induced pancreatic inflammation, there is a marked increase in macrophages in and around the islets. View this article via: A mechanism for selective lymphocyte homing in bovine hemal nodes.

Citations Publications citing this paper. The role of stromal cells in SLO development and maintenance is becoming better understood 10 as is the response of these cells to neuronal signals, including retinoic acid LVs have many functions in homeostasis. DCs accumulate in the subcapsular sinus and transmigrate through the floor of that sinus into the T cell zone, while T cells access the parenchyma of the LN through the peripheral medullary sinuses Are there any genes that are differentially expressed in LVs from TLOs compared with those in the rest of the body?

Lymphoid organ development: from ontogeny to neogenesis – Semantic Scholar

The secrets of LVs are being rapidly revealed, but there is much to be learned. The expression of LYVE1 by macrophages could be interpreted as evidence that this is the case. Fluid balance is a critical function of LVs in the body.


Efferent LVs drain activated cells developmwnt the LN, which then travel through afferent vessels to the next LN in the series, into the thoracic duct, and into the bloodstream via the subclavian veins. It has been estimated that — million people worldwide suffer from this painful, disfiguring problem, which can be the result of an anatomical abnormality fdom LVs of genetic origin primary lymphedema or the result of damage or obstruction of LVs, due to cancer, cancer treatment surgery or radiationor infection secondary lymphedema.

School of Public Health: SLOs arise during development at key locations in the body under the control of a precise developmental program, but chronic immune activity in the adult can give rise to similarly organized accumulations of lymphoid cells in almost any non-lymphoid tissue through a process that is not preprogrammed but rather the result of induction by factors in the environment onotgeny could elicit the same signals that contribute to LN development reviewed in refs.

The development ro lymphoid organs can be viewed as a continuum. William VermiFabio F. Go to JCI Insight. CCL21 is particularly sensitive to inflammation. Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases.

They can be induced experimentally by tissue-specific expression of certain inflammatory mediators summarized in ref. Our studies on high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessels elucidate developmental mechanisms and point the way towards treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation.

On the other hand, the expression of this marker on both cell types may be a red herring. Naive cells enter LNs through specialized blood vessels, called high endothelial venules HEVsand leave after interaction with antigen, which enters lyphoid LNs via LVs. This abstract may be abridged. Since the high number of HEVs also correlates with reduced metastases, we need to consider that the response generated in the tumor is effective ofgan.

Finally, the influence of the local environment on the LVs in TLOs in different organs must be analyzed. Methods, particularly imaging techniques, to further probe the functions of LVs in LNs and TLOs are available and continually improving.

Conditional inducible knockouts regulated by PROX1 will provide insight into this question.